Social Studies Chapter 1 Notes:
Ancient Civilizations/ Maya:
Created systems for writing
Agriculture- planted and raised food.
*this allowed the Mayan people to live in one place
Charted the sun, moon, and stars to create a calendar
Irrigation- a system for bringing water to dry fields.
Culture- a set of beliefs and way of life that are special to a certain group.
Adapt- to change in order to survive the conditions faced.
Native Americans adapted to their environment and developed diverse
cultures before Europeans arrived.
*Scientists believe that the first people came to North America over a land bridge between Asia and North America.
Native Americans changed the land by:
- Digging irrigation canals
- In California, Native Americans burned shrubs so that grasses would grow. The grasses attracted deer.
- The Calusa people made an island out of shells
- lived in the Southeast
- Built canoes and tools to catch fish
p. 19 Culture is: the way of life of a people. It includes their art, rules, beliefs, and history
p.20 Nomad- A person who moves often in search of food.
p. 20 Role of women: making clothing and other household goods.
p. 21 Children: Native Americans treasured children and believed they had a special connection to the spirit world.
p. 22 Council: Made up of Society’s leaders who made decisions.
p. 23 League- formed by the Iroquois. A group whose members share the same goals.
p. 24 Religion: Many groups believed that animals and the earth had spirits.
Answer the essay questions:
- Give one example of a change in Native American life that occurred as a result of farming. P.6, p. 16
- They were able to stay in one place for a long period of time. They were able to trade goods. No longer had to move to follow the bison.
- Give two examples of Native American economies that were based on their geography and environments. P.14
- The Plains people followed the bison. This provided food, shelter, and clothes.
- The Cherokee in the Southeast farmed and were expert hunters. This gave them food and tools. They were able to trade.
- The Makah and Nootka people depended on the sea. They were expert fishermen. This gave them food
- The woodland people combined farming with hunting and gathering. This gave them food, supplies and could traded.
- The southwest grew food crops and cotton. This gave them food and clothing and they were able to trade.
Social Studies Chapter 3 Notes for test:
Chapter 3 Social Studies: Settlements Take Root
Lesson 1 Spanish colony
- Encomienda- A grant from the Spanish government giving settlers the right to control local Native Americans.
- Spanish settlements spread when Spanish missionaries set up villages, called missions.
- Most missions in New Spain were in the northern regions of New Spain.
- St. Augustine fort was important since it was near the shipping route. The soldiers at the fort protected Spanish ships carrying gold and silver from pirates.
- Contact with the Spaniards harmed Native Americans when the Spaniards passed European diseases to the Native Americans. As a result, many Native Americans died.
- Essay: Describe the role of Native Americans in the economy of New Spain:
*Essay: Discuss the role of the encomienda in the economy of the Spanish settlements in New Spain.
Lesson 2 English Colony
* Drought- a long period without rain
* Representative- people chosen by voters to speak and act for them
* England wanted to start a colony in North America to compete with Spain, their rival.
*On Roanoke Island, there was probably a drought which caused a food shortage and the Native Americans could no longer share food with the settlers.
*At Jamestown John Rolfe started to grow a new type of tobacco, which allowed the Virginia company to earn profits.
*Jamestown was surrounded by unclean water and mosquitoes that carried disease.
* Essay: Discuss 3 factors that were important in the survival and growth of the Jamestown colony:
Lesson 3 Pilgrims and Puritans in New England
*Pilgrim- a person who goes on a religious journey
* The Mayflower Compact allowed them to work together to make “just and equal laws”.
*The Wampanoag helped the Pilgrims because the Pilgrims protected them from Foes.
* Religion was important to Pilgrims and Puritans. Religious activities were a central part of their lives.
*The Pilgrims cooperated with the Native Americans, and both groups benefited.
*The Puritans tried to force Christianity on the Native Americans. This led to conflict.
* Essay: Describe why the Pilgrims and Puritans came to North America:
Lesson 4 French and Dutch
- Northwesst Passage- a shortcut by water across North America to Asia
- French and Dutch traded with with some Native Americans and had conflict with other Native Americans.
- Life in the Dutch colony of New Netherland was based on Commerce.
- English, French, and Dutch colonies had different reasons for starting colonies, but economic motives were important to all three groups.
- Essay: Contrast the ways the European colonists in North America and the Native Americans viewed the ownership of land: